Sunday, May 24, 2020

The United States Army Signal Corps - 1723 Words

The storied history of the United States Army Signal Corps is lined with technological achievement and advancement. Evidence of the technological advancement and achievement is seen in the Signal Corps development of the Airplane, the meteorological service and more recently the massive improvement in net centric communication, which has led to greater command and control for leaders in the field. It is now time for the Signal Corps to tackle the next big project, and that project is robotics, a field that can change the way the Army fights and wins wars. Robotics is a rather large field with limitless capabilities, but there is one place in particular that robotics can have the highest impact, and that is security. Securing our military bases , be it forward operating bases, outposts, or even our garrison areas have become a major issue over the last decade and countless lives have been lost in doing so but with the use of robotics we can make it safer. Using robotics in base security will allow the United States Army to make massive changes in force employment and the Signal Corps already has the tools necessary to make this happen with a little help from the outside world. One of the key concepts in changing force employment is the creation of a more flexible force capable of responding to complex situations while maintaining security and working to achieve the Army’s goals of seizing, retain and exploit . One example of such a robot is the Mobile Detection AssessmentShow MoreRelated General Henry Arnold and The United States Airforce Essay941 Words   |  4 PagesIt can be argued that General Henry â€Å"Hap† Arnold is the father of the United States Air Force. His experiences, wisdom, and foresight are what made him, in every way, a visionary leader. Due to his efforts developing air mindedness during the first part of the 20th century, he shaped what is today the greatest Air Force on the planet. I will begin by explaining his effective use of transformational leadership and the impact it has on the development of airpower. Then I will explain how his acceptanceRead MoreBook Review of From the Tropics to the Arctic756 Words   |à ‚  3 PagesDepartment of the Army B Company, 442nd Signal Battalion Fort Gordon, Georgia 30905 ATZH-LCB-B February 23, 2012 Memorandum for School of Information Technology, WOBC XXX-XX Subject: Book Review on From the Tropics to the Arctic The United States Army Signal Corps was established in 1860 and was the creation of Army Major General Albert Meyer. The Corps itself has played a major role in the United States military since the Civil War and has had the initial responsibility for a vast amountRead MoreThe Aviation Branch Of The U.s. Army1513 Words   |  7 PagesThe Aviation Branch of the U.S. Army, as we know it today, did not exist at the turn of the 1800 to 1900 centuries. The military did use a Balloon Corps and Detachment for the Civil and Spanish-American Wars respectfully. However, the Army deactivated both organizations after their usage in the campaigns. These artillery spotters and reconnoiters were helpful. However, the leadership did not see a usage for them outside of war. Therefore, it would take someone understanding the potential ofRead MoreJfk Inaugural Speech Essay821 Words   |  4 Pages On January 20th, 1961, John Fitzgerald Kennedy wrote his Inaugural speech given to the American popu lace in order to encourage confidence and provoke citizens to productivity. A photo from the United States Army Signal Corps was also taken on this same day. It shows Chief Justice Earl Warren administering the Oath of Office to Kennedy during the ceremony at the Capitol. In January of 2011, Eleanor Clift wrote â€Å"Inside Kennedy’s Inauguration, 50 Years On†. This article is composed of the many memoriesRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of John F. Kennedys Speech746 Words   |  3 PagesMassachusetts. As a young man Kennedy rapidly climbed the political latter by initially representing a working class Boston district in the United States Congress, then escalated to the House of Representatives, followed by the United States Senate, and ending with the victorious defeat of his presidential opponent, to become the 35th president of the United States of America. According to, Kennedy was so well liked that â€Å"in the eyes of the world, this reticent man became a charismaticRead MoreThe Rhetorical Analysis Of John F. Kennedy839 Words   |  4 PagesKennedy became the youngest man to possess presidency in the United States of America. As a young, wealthy man Kennedy rapidly climbed the political ladder by initially representing a working class Boston district in the United States Congress, then continuing on to the House of Representatives, followed by the United States Senate, and ending with the victorious defeat of his presidential opponent, to become the 35th president of the United States. According to, Kennedy was so admired byRead MoreSignal Corps Enhances American Civil War Essay2021 Words   |  9 PagesSignal Corps Enhances American Civil War The American Civil War is debatably the first modern warfare in American history (Hagerman, 1988, XI). The Civil War was the beginning of a new era, the contemporary operational environment. Field commanders had to deal with conditions, influences, and circumstances that affect the utilizations of military forces. Commanders could no longer rely on past experiences to determine future outcomes. Commanders had to take variables other than military forcesRead MoreCommunication 491 Work Experience Essay1728 Words   |  7 Pagesskills include jobs in some manner with the United States Army since 1996 (16 years in the United States Army and eight years of a civilian job in the Army Corp of Engineers at the Hannibal Lock and Dam) and seven years in chemical operating, have given me extensive skills and knowledge. This experience was acquired through training and continuing education with the United States Army, Cytec Industries (currently, Solvay Industries), and the Army Corp of En gineers Pittsburgh District –Hannibal LockRead MoreThe History of the United States Air Force Essay533 Words   |  3 PagesThe United States Air Force is a dedicated and effective establishment, and has been a great advantage in protecting the United States during numerous wars. It all started on August 1, 1907, General James Allen, Cheif Signal Officer or the U.S Army created and established the Aeronautical Division. He entrusted this organization with All matters pertaining to military ballooning air machines and related subjects. (Creation) Allen then put in command, Captain Charles D. Chander who was assistedRead MoreExamples Of Military Leadership1621 Words   |  7 Pages Served as a Senior Advisor, Telecommunication Chief and Project Manager and a Military Veteran with a Top Secret -SCI Security Clearance and 25 years of results-driven, proven leadership experience in the United States Army. Exercised, full managerial authority and aggressive integration of human capital practices, and innovative solutions to complex human capital challenges. Experienced in developing and contributing to, and supporting the organization’s mission, vision, values, and strategic goals

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Uncovering the Truth About John Brown - 865 Words

Throughout history John Brown has been described as a terrorist, mentally ill, and a failure among other things. Because he stood strongly for what he believed in, and his goal was eventually achieved he can be seen for the most part as a hero. Brown was described as â€Å"an American who gave his life that millions of other Americans be free† (Chowder,6). Brown was a headstrong abolitionist who claimed that he was told by God to end slavery causing him to see himself as â€Å"a latter-day Moses† (Chowder, 6). With this, he stopped at nothing to fulfill these expectations. Brown’s heroism is displayed through how he was recounted by others during and after his lifetime, the actions though drastic he took when fighting for what he believed in, and†¦show more content†¦He fought long and hard for what â€Å"he believed with certitude was a sin against God.† (Bordewich, 3). Of the many words used to describe Brown, one that would come up occasionally was hero. But â€Å"it wasnt until the 1970’s that John Brown the hero re-emerged.† (Chowder, 6). Two studies done by Stephen B. Oates and Richard Owen Boyer came to a conclusion that â€Å"Brown was stubborn, monomaniacal, egotistical, self-righteous, and sometimes deceitful; yet he was, at certain times, a great man.†(Chowder,6). Also, â€Å"among African- Americans, Brown’s heroism has never been in doubt. (Chowder, 6) Many strong black figures commended Brown’s actions in various ways. â€Å"Frederick Douglass praised him in print; W. E. B. Du Bois published a four-hundred word celebration of him in 1909; Malcolm X said he wouldnt mind being with white people if they were like John Brown; Alice Walker, in a poem, even wondered if in an earlier incarnation she herself hadn’t once been John Brown.† (Chowder, 6). Harriet Tubman â€Å"thought Brown was the greatest white man who had ever lived.† (Bordewich, 5). He even  "began comparing himself to Jesus Christ. And he was not alone.† (Chowder, 5). Though he was described as â€Å"crazy† for a large part of his life, the fact that he was remembered by so many in such a positive manner, makes him a hero. Most of Brown’s reputation was based off of the Pottawatomie Massacre. It was an event led by John Brown that is usually described as â€Å"coldShow MoreRelatedThe New Orleans Conceived Craftsman1657 Words   |  7 Pagesan appearance in a Calvin Klein advertisement, next to no has been seen or gotten notification from Ocean. The anticipation was broken on 1 August, when baffling footage – purportedly recorded in 2015 – showed up on the site For about 48 hours, a camera was settled on a highly contrasting CCTV-like setup that demonstrated within a void stockroom and a line of apparatus. We saw a substantial heap of speakers, potentially taken from an establishment by the craftsman and companionRead MoreEssay on American Spies: The Secret of Washington’s Culper Spy Ring3421 Words   |  14 Pagesgaining intelligence. It also was tasked with planting and passing false intelligence to the British. Looking back, the questions that must be asked are: What role did this spy ring play in the war? Did it help bring about the American victory? Was the spy ring responsible for uncovering the plot by Benedict Arnold to turn West Point over to the British? Major Benjamin Tallmadge, appointed by Washington to be his chief of intelligence, was responsible for setting up the i ntelligence service utilizingRead MoreSlavery and Racism in Toni Morrison’s A Mercy Essay2930 Words   |  12 Pagesto complicated relationships slavery as an institution has with racism. It is more so when the potential for recovering additional knowledge seems to be limitless. Even in the fields of cultural and literary studies, there is a huge emphasis upon uncovering aspects of the past that would lead one towards a better understanding of the genesis of certain institutionalized systems. A careful discussion of the history of slavery and racism in the new world in the early 17th Century would lead us towardsRead MoreTranscendentalism in Civil Disobedience3710 Words   |  15 Pageswith laws by the public. Thoreau focuses on an individualized responsibility for ones actions by declaring only introspectively found truths a sufficient basis for ones conscience and therefore ones actions. This is where transcendentalism is found in his argumentation. The transcendental app roach to all of reality is through introspection, finding knowledge and truth in ourselves instead of in empirical experience or law. Thoreau incorporates this idea of introspective conscience into a frameworkRead More Racial Controversy Surrounding the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.3071 Words   |  13 Pagestheories that evolved after King’s assassination were created in a way to avoid Caucasians admitting that a single white person shot and killed the head of the Civil Rights Movement. Along with the many different conspiracy theories, there has been an uncovering of faults in the FBI’s investigation, some of which include not taking African-Americans’ eyewitness testimony seriously. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s first step into the world of civil rights occurred in Montgomery, Alabama, in DecemberRead MoreTo What Extent Can Organisational Culture Be Managed? Is It Critical to Organisational Success?3488 Words   |  14 Pagesbeen considered synonymous with the pursuit of excellence for organisations. It is true that a wide variety of management practitioners view the control of organisational culture as something both possible and necessary for organisational success (Brown 1993). A survey of organisational practices of a range of firms revealed that 94% of the firms had engaged in ‘culture management’ of some sort (IRS 1997). However, despite the apparent popularity of these practices and the strong level of importanceRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesLas Vegas Far too many authors of contemporary texts in informal logic – keeping an eye on the sorts of arguments found in books on formal logic – forget, or underplay, how much of our daily reasoning is concerned not with arguments leading to truth-valued conclusions but with making choices, assessing reasons, seeking advice, etc. Dowden gets the balance and the emphasis right. Norman Swartz, Simon Fraser University v Acknowledgments For the 1993 edition: The following friends andRead More1.1 Discuss the Purpose of Corporate Communication Strategies16606 Words   |  67 Pagesdecisions affect an organisation (Freeman 1984), and are normally seen to be passive. When they become aware of potential problems in the relationship with an organisation, they can be described as aware publics. If they actively start communicating about the problem they are seen to be active publics (Grunig Repper, in Grunig 1992:125). 3. APPROACHES TO THE ROLE OF BUSINESS IN SOCIETY AS A METATHEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 THE SHAREHOLDER APPROACH The traditional profit-centred approach to managementRead MoreHbr When Your Core Business Is Dying74686 Words   |  299 Pagesers is as crucial as increa sing supply and curbin g demand. Only then wil l the world enjoy energy peace-of-mind. Succeeding in securing energy for everyone doe sn’t have to come at the exp ens start to think differently e of anyone. Once we all about energy, then w e can truly make this promise a reality. $15 hips over ket. ners part r sting Inve gy to ma ough †¢ y thr ener s nerg llion able ing e f mi elop ntries. Dev cou ds o d renew †¢ ndre an in 26 g hu rnative ply. y i tt i n nerg mm y toRead MoreCommon Knowledge : How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know56617 Words   |  227 PagesCreating and Leveraging Common Knowledge 3 Serial Transfer 4 Near Transfer 5 Far Transfer 6 Strategic Transfer 7 Expert Transfer 8 Looking Across the Five Types of Knowledge Transfer 9 Building an Integrated System for Knowledge Transfer Notes Index About the Author ix 1 17 33 53 77 99 127 143 161 175 179 187 Page ix Acknowledgments In the course of writing this book many organizations opened their doors to me so I could gain a comprehensive understanding of how they were transferring knowledge

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Components of a Decision Support System Free Essays

(i)Data Management Component. The data management component performs the function of storing and maintaining the information that you want your Decision Support System to use. The data management component, therefore, consists of both the Decision Support System information and the Decision Support System database management system. We will write a custom essay sample on The Components of a Decision Support System or any similar topic only for you Order Now The information you use in your Decision Support System comes from one or more of three sources: Organizational information: One may want to use virtually any information available in the organization for your Decision Support System. What you use, of course, depends on what you need and whether it is available. You can design your Decision Support System to access this information directly from your company’s database and data warehouse. However, specific information is often copied to the Decision Support System database to save time in searching through the organization’s database and data warehouses. External information: Some decisions require input from external sources of information. Various branches of federal government, Dow Jones, Compustat data, and the internet, to mention just a few, can provide additional information for the use with a Decision Support System. Personal information:You can incorporate your own insights and experience your personal information into your Decision Support System. You can design your Decision Support System so that you enter this personal information only as needed, or you can keep the information in a personal database that is accessible by the Decision Support System. (ii)Model Management Component. The model management component consists of both the Decision Support System models and the Decision Support System model management system. A model is a representation of some event, fact, or situation. As it is not always practical, or wise, to experiment with reality, people build models and use them for experimentation. Models can take various forms. Businesses use models to represent variables and their relationships. For example, you would use a statistical model called analysis of variance to determine whether newspaper, TV, and billboard advertizing are equally effective in increasing sales. Decision Support Systems help in various decision-making situations by utilizing models that allow you to analyze information in many different ways. The models you use in a Decision Support System depend on the decision you are making and, consequently, the kind of analysis you require. For example, you would use what-if analysis to see what effect the change of one or more variables will have on other variables, or optimization to find the most profitable solution given operating restrictions and limited resources. Spreadsheet software such as excel can be used as a Decision Support System for what-if analysis. The model management system stores and maintains the Decision Support System’s models. Its function of managing models is similar to that of a database management system. The model management component can not select the best model for you to use for a particular problem that requires your expertise but it can help you create and manipulate models quickly and easily. (iii)User Interface Management Component. The user interface management component allows you to communicate with the Decision Support System. It consists of the user interface management system. This is the component that allows you to combine your know-how with the storage and processing capabilities of the computer. The user interface is the part of the system you see through it when enter information, commands, and models. This is the only component of the system with which you have direct contract. If you have a Decision Support System with a poorly designed user interface, if it is too rigid or too cumbersome to use, you simply won’t use it no matter what its capabilities. The best user interface uses your terminology and methods and is flexible, consistent, simple, and adaptable. For an example of the components of a Decision Support System, let’s onsider the Decision Support System that Land’s End has tens of millions of names in its customer database. It sells a wide range of women’s, men’s, and children’s clothing, as well various household wares. To match the right customer with the catalog, land’s end has identified 20 different specialty target markets. Customers in these target markets receive catalogs of merchandise that they are likel y to buy, saving Lands’ End the expense of sending catalogs of all products to all 20 million customers. To predict customer demand, lands’ end needs to continuously monitor buying trends. And to meet that demand, lands’ end must accurately forecast sales levels. To accomplish theses goals, it uses a Decision Support System which performs three tasks: Data management: The Decision Support System stores customer and product information. In addition to this organizational information, Lands’ End also needs external information, such as demographic information and industry and style trend information. Model management: The Decision Support System has to have models to analyze the information. The models create new information that decision makers need to plan product lines and inventory levels. For example, Lands’ End uses a statistical model called regression analysis to determine trends in customer buying patterns and forecasting models to predict sales levels. User interface management: A user interface enables Lands’ End decision makers to access information and to specify the models they want to use to create the information they need. How to cite The Components of a Decision Support System, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Techniques of Enhancing Capability of Memory

Questions: 1. Enhanced memory reliability against multiple cell upsets using decimal matrix code.2. Fault secure encoder and decoder for nanoMemory applications. Answers: Introduction In the contemporary time the enhancing the capability of memory has become very crucial for every usage, as technological demands are getting increased day by day[1]. There are several technological advancements that are being implemented into the systems for increasing the usability of the memory. In this report two papers are getting reviewed for understanding impact of enhancing of memory utility. 1: Enhanced Memory Reliability Against Multiple Cell Upsets Using Decimal Matrix Code Contemporary time is facing multiple cell upsets as one of the major issues. This is related to reliability of memories exposed in front of radiation. Prevention of MCU (Multiple Cell Upsets) is controlled by complex error code correction (ECCs)[2]. In addition to this, Hamming codes that are called Matrix codes are introduced into the system for providing protection to the memory[3]. Core issues related with this concept is that these codes are nothing but the doubled error correction code and in many cases these doubled codes cannot improve the capability of the code. In the proposed schemes of DMCs it is clear that it offers minimum circuit area by reusing encoders. This condition is mainly known as ERT that reduces area overhead[4]. Decimal algorithms are utilized for obtaining maximum capability for detection of error code from DMC. ERT system utilizes DMC encoder as a part of decoder. Proposed DMC are compared generally with the following codes: Punctured different set (PDS), e xisting Hamming code and MCs[5]. According to the measures taken for testing the usability of codes it was found that mean time failure (MTTF) regarding proposed scheme is around 122.6%, 154.6% and 452.9%. In addition to this, delay overhead involved in this case is decided to set at the following levels: 26.2%, 69% and 73.1%. MTBF is nothing but a measure of the reliability of some components or products. These percentages are related to following codes: MCs, Hamming codes and PDS. Motivational goals: Following are the motivational goals of this paper: To increase the reliability of memory by utilizing Decimal matrix code. To prevent the MCU from data corruption and more complex error formation. To establish the memory protection through the hamming code and matrix code. To enhance the maximum error detection capability. To reduce the mean time to failure (MTTF) 2: Fault Secure Encoder and Decoder for NanoMemory Applications This article is focusing on the enhancement of memory utility[6]. In case of the logic circuits, the soft error rate gets increased. In addition to this, the decoder and encoders around the memory bocks behaves susceptibly towards the soft errors. Better memory protection can be obtained by the help of introducing a new system that is known as fault- secure decoder and encoder. Key part of this paper comes from indentifying new technological advancement for error correcting codes that makes the design of faulty- secure detectors simple by its redundancy. There are transient errors that specified by protecting the encoders and decoders. In this paper it has been elaborated that EG- LDPC codes is capable of providing fault- security[7]. The EG- LDPC codes have the tolerance for protecting the encoder and decodes from system failure rates involved in the coding system. These codes can detect 10% faulty rates within the range of 10^(-18) upsets/device/cycle. Larger EG- LDPC codes can pro vide lower area of overhead and helps to gain higher reliability in the field of evaluation of codes[8]. There are several benefits offered by these applications. The Nanoscale devices may not be last for long time though the efficiency provided by these devices are enough to utilize their impacts[9]. This paper is reviewing about the fault- tolerant nanoscale architecture that specifies the transient faults within the system. In this case the supporting logic circuits are: encoders, detectors, decoders etc[10]. In this paper this description is totally based on EG- LDPC codes. Motivational goals: following are the motivational goals of this paper: To decrease the soft errors in circuits. To make sure about the protection of encoders and decoders in circuit. To increase the reliability of the memory. To utilize the FIT in increasing memory reliability. To make the design of fault- secure detector more safe and simple for utilizing it in memory design. To use EG- LDPC codes for reducing nano-wire defect rate. Conclusion Utilization of memory is one of the most efficient technological advancement in contemporary times. Among all of resolution processes two are discussed in this review with the help of two article review. These articles are elaborating about the following techniques: use of decimal matrix code for increasing reliability of memory and Fault Secure Encoder and Decoder for NanoMemory Applications. These two aspects are two ways of increasing the reliability and reusability of memory that will in terms increase the capability of the memory. Work Cited Naeimi, Helia and Andr DeHon.Fault Secure Encoder and Decoder for NanoMemory Applications(2009). Guo, Jing, Liyi Xiao, Zhigang Mao, and Qiang Zhao. "Enhanced Memory Reliability Against Multiple Cell Upsets Using Decimal Matrix Code".IEEE(2013). JUN, Hoyoon and Yongsurk LEE. "Protection Of On-Chip Memory Systems Against Multiple Cell Upsets Using Double-Adjacent Error Correction Codes".IEICE Transactions on ElectronicsE98.C, no. 3 (2015): 267-274. Jiao, Jiajia, Yuzhuo Fu, and Shijie Wen. "Accelerated Assessment Of Fine-Grain AVF In Noc Using A Multi-Cell Upsets Considered Fault Injection".Microelectronics Reliability54, no. 11 (2014): 2629-2640. Kapileswar, N. "Fault Secure Encoder And Decoder With Clock Gating".International Journal of VLSI Design Communication Systems3, no. 2 (2012): 133-141. Mathur, Nehul and Sunil Sharma. "Simulation Of Convolutional Encoder And Viterbi Decoder Using Verilog".International Journal of Computer Applications102, no. 4 (2014): 31-34. Sribala, Gade, D.V.N. Sukanya, K. Gouthami, and Tai-hoon Kim. "LDPC Encoder And Decoder Architecture For Coding 3-Bit Message Vector".IJSIA9, no. 10 (2015): 21-30. Qi, Chunhua, Li Xiao, Tianqi Wang, Jie Li, and Linzhe Li. "A Highly Reliable Memory Cell Design Combined With Layout-Level Approach To Tolerant Single Event Upsets".IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability(2016): 1-1.

Friday, March 27, 2020

King Lear King Lear A Tragic Hero Essays - Literature, King Lear

King Lear: King Lear a Tragic Hero King Lear had been discussed by many critics of the play of this name, with some taking the position that he was a tragic hero. However, there are a few who believe that he was not, and that in effect, he might even be a comic figure. This paper attempts to discuss whether King Lear is a tragic hero or not, looking at the works of two critics, each taking opposite sides. On the one hand, there is A.C. Bradley, who takes the position that King Lear is a tragic hero because he demonstrates all the characteristics of a tragic hero as Bradley saw it. On the other hand, G. Wilson Knight believes that the play King Lear is really a comedy of the grotesque, and that King Lear is really a comic figure. The position that I am taking is this paper is that King Lear is a tragic hero, because he fits all the characteristics that Bradley identifies as belonging to a tragic hero, and more than that although there might appear to be comic elements in the play King Lear that the tragic elemen seem to outweigh the comic. Therefore, the position taken by Knight is not accurate in describing King Lear. The tragic hero, according to Bradley, is a person who suffers tremendously, whose suffering goes beyond him. The tragic hero also takes the action that produces the suffering and calamity which leads to death. Other characteristics of a tragic hero are as follows. The tragic hero is a person who is of high degree, and his welfare is intimately tied up with the welfare of the state. The hero is an exceptional being, of high degree, whose actions and sufferings are of an unusual kind, who possesses and exceptional nature. His nature is exceptional in the sense that it is very much like our nature, except that it is intensified. The tragic hero is also involved in conflict, which could be either conflict with someone else, or conflict within himself. The tragic hero is also described as inspiring pity on the part of the viewer because of the intensity of the suffering that the tragic hero is undergoing. Furthermore, the tragic hero is seen as wretched, nevertheless, the audience does not see him as contemptible. Instead, the audience sees the tragic hero as suffering and the order in the world as destroyed. The only way that order would be restored is through the death of the tragic hero. (Bradley) Knight, on the other hand, takes a different perspective of the play King Lear. This author points out that tragedy and comedy are very close to each other. "Humor is an evanescent thing, even more difficult of analysis and intellectual location than tragedy. To the coarse mind lacking sympathy an incident may seem comic which to the richer understanding is pitiful and tragic." (Knight 1949, 34) In other words, tragedy and comedy seem to involve the process of invoking tension, and the relief of that tension could be either through the pain of tragedy or the humor of comedy. This is why there are situations where a person may cry or laugh at a similar set of circumstances. It just depends on how the idea is developed. "The comic and the tragic rest both on the idea of incompatibilities, and are also, themselves, mutually exclusive; therefore to mingle them is to add to the meaning of each; for the result is then but a new sublime incongruity." (Knight 1949, 34) The reason that people laugh at situations is that there is a juxtaposition of things that are incongruous. At the same time, the tragic does involve incompatible things taking place, and thus leading to a resolution of the pressure that is created through pain or crying. Knight does not see tragedy and comedy as being very different in the sense that they both view incongruity. In the case of King Lear, Knight believes that while the character of King Lear is tragic in the sense that he suffers that there is something comic in the situation because King Lear brings it upon himself because of the incongruity of King Lear's behavior. King Lear is mad, and his behavior from the very beginning of the play, where he tries to see which one of his daughters loves him more is incongruous. Knight sees this situation as comic, where King Lear has " . . . staged an interlude, with himself as chief action. . . . It

Friday, March 6, 2020

Definition and Examples of Text Linguistics

Definition and Examples of Text Linguistics Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics concerned with the description and analysis of extended texts (either spoken or written) in communicative contexts. Sometimes spelled as one word, textlinguistics (after the German Textlinguistik). In some ways, notes David Crystal, text linguistics overlaps considerably with . . . discourse analysis and some linguists see very little difference between them (Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 2008). Examples and Observations In recent years, the study of texts has become a defining feature of a branch of linguistics referred to (especially in Europe) as textlinguistics, and text here has central theoretical status. Texts are seen as language units which have a definable communicative function, characterized by such principles as cohesion, coherence and informativeness, which can be used to provide a formal definition of what constitutes their textuality or texture. On the basis of these principles, texts are classified into text types, or genres, such as road signs, news reports, poems, conversations, etc. . . . Some linguists make a distinction between the notions of text, viewed as a physical product, and discourse, viewed as a dynamic process of expression and interpretation, whose function and mode of operation can be investigated using psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic, as well as linguistic, techniques.(David Crystal, Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th ed. Blackwell, 2008) Seven Principles of Textuality [The] seven principles of textuality: cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativity, situationality, and intertextuality, demonstrate how richly every text is connected to your knowledge of world and society, even a telephone directory. Since the appearance of the Introduction to Text Linguistics [by Robert de Beaugrande and Wolfgang Dressler] in 1981, which used these principles as its framework, we need to emphasize that they designate the major modes of connectedness and not (as some studies assumed) the linguistic features of text-artifacts nor the borderline between texts versus non-texts (c.f. II.106ff, 110). The principles apply wherever an artifact is textualized, even if someone judges the results incoherent, unintentional, unacceptable, and so on. Such judgments indicate that the text is not appropriate (suitable to the occasion), or efficient (easy to handle), or effective (helpful for the goal) (I.21); but it is still a text. Usually, disturbances or i rregularities are discounted or at worst construed as signals of spontaneity, stress, overload, ignorance, and so on, and not as a loss or a denial of textuality.(Robert De Beaugrande, Getting Started. New Foundations for a Science of Text and Discourse: Cognition, Communication, and the Freedom of Access to Knowledge and Society. Ablex, 1997) Definitions of Text Crucial to the establishment of any functional variety is the definition of text and the criteria that have been used to delimit one functional variety from another. Some text-linguists (Swales 1990; Bhatia 1993; Biber 1995) do not specifically define text/a text but their criteria for text analysis imply that they are following a formal/structural approach, namely, that a text is a unit larger than a sentence (clause), in fact it is a combination of a number of sentences (clauses) or a number of elements of structure, each made of one or more sentences (clauses). In such cases, the criteria for distinguishing between two texts are the presence and/or absence of elements of structure or types of sentences, clauses, words, and even morphemes such as -ed, -ing, -en in the two texts. Whether texts are analyzed in terms of some elements of structure or a number of sentences (clauses) that can then be broken down into smaller units, a top-down analysis, or in terms of smaller units such a s morphemes and words that can be put together to build the larger unit of text, a bottom-up analysis, we are still dealing with a formal/structural theory and approach to text analysis. (Mohsen Ghadessy, Textual Features and Contextual Factors for Register Identification. Text and Context in Functional Linguistics, ed. by Mohsen Ghadessy. John Benjamins, 1999) Discourse Grammar An area of investigation within text linguistics, discourse grammar involves the analysis and presentation of grammatical regularities that overlap sentences in texts. In contrast to the pragmatically oriented direction of text linguistics, discourse grammar departs from a grammatical concept of text that is analogous to sentence. The object of investigation is primarily the phenomenon of cohesion, thus the syntactic-morphological connecting of texts by textphoric, recurrence, and connective. (Hadumod Bussmann, Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Translated and edited by Gregory P. Trauth and Kerstin Kazzazi. Routledge, 1996)

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Cesar Chavez's Plan Delano Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cesar Chavez's Plan Delano - Essay Example "The Plan of Delano" is the Proclamation issued by La Causa when the National Farm Workers' Association voted to join the Filipino grape pickers' strike in 1965. It spells out the platform of Cesar Chavez' peaceful yet forceful demand for farm workers' welfare and labor reforms to end the injustice that has been oppressing them. He calls it a pilgrimage, a journey that moves towards a hopeful end. This journey is bathed in the blood and sweat of their forefathers in the last one hundred years. He says that they are not afraid to suffer for the sake of attaining their goals of a better life and development. The Plan is a six-point proposition that entails the following: 1. It is going to be a peaceful rally seeking for their basic human rights, quoting Benito Jurez: "El respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz" (Respect for the rights of others is the way to peace); 2. It calls for the "support of political groups and protection of the government," for in the past they have been ignored and less favored; 3. It is also a call for support from the Church of all denominations believing that "God shall not abandon" them; 4. It further calls for endurance amidst the suffering; 5. It also calls for unity, for there is strength in being united; and 6. Finally, it calls for unarmed revolution. This Proclamation has not only been limited to the area where Chavez and his followers belong but it has been a window to the heart and soul of the Mexicans all over the world. For instance, Lorena Oropeza, in "Raza S! Guerra No!: Chicano Protest and Patriotism during the Viet Nam War Era, valorizes the Chicano patriotism and protest as she refers to the "Plan de Delano" as "a ringing plea for dignity and equality for all farmworkers" (72). In addition, the Postmodern Political Communication: The Fringe Challenges the Center edited by Andrew King mentions that the "Plan of Delano" was Top of Form "inspired by [Emiliano] Zapata" (88) and is a "reflection of the ideas of a Chicano prophet, Cesar Chavez" (93). Further, the book states that "His (Chavez) Plan of Delano, like all his rhetoric, focuses on this moral view of the world" (94) as it "presents a powerful call for unity among Mexican-Americans" (96). Looking into the text, one can glean the admirable and ideal characteristics of this action for a cause. Unlike the present strikes and rallies all over the world, particularly in Third World countries, Chavez' group exemplifies one that is peaceful, impartial, spiritual, enduring, united and unarmed as spelled out in the six-point plan. Works Cited The Plan of Delano. (18 April 2008). This site contains the full text of the platform of Chavez's call for a peaceful strike that demands for reforms regarding the social injustices that the farm workers are subjected to. Csar E. Chvez. Social Justice and Civil Rights. California Department of Education. (18 April 2008). This site contains a comprehensive collection of materials and articles pertaining to Cesar Chavez and his